The battle that came about in 1857 to expel the British from India, its failure was predetermined. There are 5 principal causes for the failure of the revolution. Apart from that; P.E. Roberts has given two different causes – Centralized Rebellion and Generosity of Kenning. Dodwen added another reason that’s – Lack of Organization. Main causes for the failure of revolution are followings :
Rebellion in Meerut
As per pre-planning, the day of 31 March 1857 was determined to revolt collectively throughout India, But sadly on March 29, 1857, Mangal Pandey revolted. This information reached Meerut instantly and on May 10, 1857, there was a insurrection in Meerut. Thus, failure to insurgent within the immature state was certain.
Deception of Sikhs and Gorkhas
Rajputs, Sikhs, and Gorkhas have been well-known for his or her bravery. Except for some locations, Rajputs confirmed indifference to the insurrection. The Sikhs justified the assist of the British Empire. The Sikhs weren’t able to assist Bengal, that had supported the British throughout the merger of Punjab. So they have been loyal to the British. The Sikhs broke the again of revolution by profitable Delhi and Lucknow. The Gorkhas, attacked Awadh beneath the command of Commander Jang Bahadur and helped the British and made the revolution unsuccessful by betraying Indians.
The disinterest of South India
The southern a part of Narmada was utterly peaceable. If South India would have helped North India in insurrection then it will be unattainable to suppress such an enormous revolt. The principal facilities of the insurrection have been Delhi, Bihar, Awadh, Ruhalkhand, Chambal, and the land close to the Narmada. So the British referred to as the military from the south and received the victory by attacking the insurgent areas. The British needed to face a insurrection in a really restricted space. Thus the indifference of South India was a boon for the British. Therefore, the British confirmed their gratitude in direction of the Nizam and Sindhiya.
Non-cooperation of kings
Almost all Indian kings helped the British in suppressing the insurrection. Dinkarrao the minister of Sindhiya and Salarjang the minister of Nizam didn’t enable the revolution to unfold of their states. The kings of Rajputana additionally helped the British. Kenning himself mentioned that if Sindhiya too joins the insurrection, then I ought to bind up my bag and baggage. Similarly, the king of Mysore, Sikh Sardar of Punjab, Maratha and East Bengal and so on. have been additionally not co-operated in insurrection. If they have been all organized to combat in opposition to the British, then the British would have misplaced their lives.
Lack of expert leaders
There was no expert chief to manage the insurrection correctly. Though the rebels accepted Bahadur Shah as their chief, however he was outdated and it was hopeless to simply accept a profitable military-operation and management from him. Nana Sahib was a intelligent chief, however he was not knowledgeable in navy operations. Tatya Tope was of excellent character however he doesn’t have any navy benefit. Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi and Zamindar of Jagadishpur Kunwar Singh was probably the most competent leaders. Rani Lakshmibai was courageous however she was inexperienced. Kunwar Singh was additionally courageous, however he was outdated and nobody was prepared to simply accept him as a frontrunner. Thus there was no expert chief of the revolt, who may manage everybody and made the battle profitable.
Non-cooperation of residents
The insurrection was confined to a couple kings, feudal and troopers solely. Most of the individuals in India have been the farmer. No insurrection may have succeeded by ignoring this class. But the rebels didn’t make any effort to get the cooperation of farmers. Thus, this revolution couldn’t be a mass-revolution. The individuals, who have been struggling, have been solely to fulfill their selfishness.
Lack of Central Organization
There have been sure organizations and plans earlier than the insurrection began, however after it started, the sequence of the plan was not seen. There was a predetermined plan till the insurgent reached to Delhi, however later it involves an finish. There ought to be a central group, which might coordinate with the revolts of all areas based on the actions of the British.
The generosity of Lord Kenning
The generosity of the fast governor-general Lord Kenning additionally succeeded in settle down the rebels. P.E. Roberts has written that his humility was not solely morally strong, but additionally politically justifiable.
Lack of concrete objective
The revolt was as a result of fats cartridges and inconveniences of Indian troopers and in addition earlier than scheduled time. The Muslims wished to revive the traditional glory of the Mughal Emperor whereas Hindus wished to re-establish the supremacy of Hindus beneath the management of Nana Sahib and Rani Lakshmi Bai.
Favorable circumstances of the British
If the 1857 revolution had occurred someday earlier than, the British needed to run away from India. But by the point the insurrection started, circumstances had turn out to be favorable to the British. Crimea’s battle was over. In India, the native monarch, feudal and intellectuals have been supporting the British. The results of the reform of Dalhousie was that the communication system had been set as much as ship logistics to the military.
The rebels had very restricted sources as in comparison with the British. The rebels had the troopers with a way of sacrifice, however they didn’t have ways just like the British. The British had European educated troopers, who have been expert in technique and diplomacy, whereas the rebels knew solely to die, to not combat. They additionally needed to face monetary inconveniences.